Articles

Ruth Markus, “Femme Fatale at the Turn of the 20th Century”, Femme Fatale, Tel-Aviv: Museum Tel-Aviv, 2006, (188-179).
Abstract
Gustav Klimt Judith I, 1901…l auf Leinwand84 x 42 cm
Femme Fatale is dominant image in the arts since the end of the 19th century, mostly known as “Vampire”. In Surrealism she appears as a castrating woman in the image of the female Praying Mantis, which kills and eats the male during coitus. This article examines the history and the background of the image Femme Fatal, and her various appearances in art as, among others, Lilith, Salome, Yael and Judith.
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Ruth Markus, “Clair Yaniv – the Woman and the Bird”, Clair Yaniv, the Woman and the Soul Bird, Exh. Cat., Ein Hod: Janco-Dada Museum, 2006, (82-76).
Abstract
The painter Clair Yaniv is one of the founders of the Group of Ten and of Aklim (climate) Group, and one of the first members of the artists’ village Ein Hod. The article focuses on the transition of Yaniv from figurative art to the abstract. It shows how the painter’s point of view moved upwards, looking at the landscape with a bird’s eye, seeing it as an aerial-map. Although this view supposedly creates flat and depthless painting, Yaniv achieved depth by the use of color and movement.
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Ruth Markus, “Line and Space as New Artistic Language in Modern Sculpture”, Pictorial Languages and Their Meaning, ed. by Christine B. Verzar and G. Pishhof, Tel-Aviv University, 2006, (305-320).
Abstract
Line and space (negative space) became new sculptural materials in the beginning of the 20th century. The article shows how the intellectual climate of that era (new philosophical and scientific ideas) demands a new artistic language to portray a new reality. The first sculptors who contributed (all in 1912) to the use of line and space in sculpture are: Pablo Picasso with the Guitar, Archipenko with Walking Woman and Boccioni, with Development of a Bottle in Space.
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Ruth Markus, “Artists: Yishuv and Israel, 1920-1970”, Jewish Women, a Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia, ed. By E. Hayman and D. Ofer, Shalvi Publishing Ltd., Jerusalem, 2006.(DVD) http://jwa.org/encyclopedia
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Ruth Markus, “’Retour à l’ordre and the Classical Language of French Modern Architecture after the First World War”, Kalathos: Studies in honour of Prof. Asher Ovadiah, Assaph 10-11, Studies in Art History, Tel-Aviv University, 2005-2006, (171-186).
Abstract
The inability and refusal to cope with the chaos of the First World War led the artists at the beginning of the 1920s to “return to order” and seek refuge in an organized and ordered world, based on logic, rules, proportions and order – characteristics of the classical language. Various Purist movements in architecture (which I name “neo-neoclassicists”) emerged almost simultaneously, such as De Stijl, Constructivism, Purisme and Bauhaus – all of them promoting idealistic concepts and aimed at achieving a systematic rational language and permanent rules by means of abstract forms.
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Ruth Markus, “Light and Dynamism in Futurist Art and Scenography”, Assaph 9, Studies in Art History, Tel-Aviv University, 2005. (First version published in Scenography International, 5, “Tradition andinnovation”, 2002).
Abstract
Although the Futurists could express ‘modernism’ anddynamism’ through modern subject matters, such as machines, electricity, cars or airplanes, they had difficulty in producing a visual image of dynamism, because still media like painting or sculpture (at that time) could not realize movement. I argue here that because dynamism and movement can be better realized in three-dimensional space, theatre and performance were the most suitable Futurist arena. Furthermore, total sensual experience, as the Futurists aspired, is more effectively achieved through the audio-visual medium of performance.as proven by the performances Victory over the Sun (1913) and Feu d’Artifice (Fireworks, 1917).
To open the version in Assaph click here.To open the first version in Scenography International (with color plates) click here.

Ruth Markus, “Giacometti’s ‘The Palace at 4 A.M.’ (1932-22) as a Stage Design”, Scenography International, 8, 2004.
Abstract
“The Palace at 4 A.M.” is surrealist’s assemblage, which was supposedly done at the end of Giacometti’s love affair. The construction comprise 3 spaces which represent Giacometti himself (in the middle), and his mother and lover from both his sides. This article analyses how Giacometti connects between his relations with women and his relations with his mother.
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Ruth Markus, “What Does the Mask Cover? Giacometti’s ‘The Invisible Object’ (1934)”. The Metamorphosis of Marginal Images: From Antiquity to Present Time, Tel-Aviv University, 2001, (213-224).
Abstract
This sculpture was created after the death of Giacometti’s father. The death of his father, and his sense of losing his artistic path, drew him to a point of emptiness, at which everything stopped and ceased to exist. For this reason, nothing exists behind the mask of the figure holding the Invisible Object – but the void itself. Giacometti completes the artistic and psychological process that started when he joined the Surrealists.
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Ruth Markus, “Sex and Gender in Giacometti’s Couples”, Assaph 5, Studies in Art History, 5, Tel-Aviv University, 2001; (81-102).
Abstract
The first couples were created when Giacometti first became preoccupied with the question of the visual perception of the model and its translation into clay, which lead him to stop sculpting from nature. The first couples were characterized by alienation and the absence of physical or emotional contact, and later by the disjoining the figures and mixing their body parts. With the influence the Surrealists he became increasingly conscious of psychological motivation, and at that stage appears the first emotional connection between the couple – notably a sexual and mostly aggressive one.
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Ruth Markus, “Surrealism’s Praying Mantis and Castrating Woman”, Woman’s Art Journal, vol. 21;1, Spring/Summer, 2000; (33-39).
Abstract
The most characteristic idiosyncrasy of the female mantis is her devouring of the male during or directly after the sexual act. The Surrealists were captivated by the mantis because of her so many ambivalent attributes. To them she embodied the most negative female archetype, the castrating woman, with the vagina dentata who represents cannibalism and death. However, as the moment of death and the creation of new life commingle, many cultures also associate the mantis also with fertility and revival.
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Ruth Markus, “Futurist Scenography: From Revolutionary Theory to Practice”, Assaph 15, Studies in the Theatre, Tel-Aviv University, 2000, (153- 163).
Abstract
Futurism was one of the most revolutionary movements in all the artistic media. However, as greatly as they were advanced in theory, they were not so in practice. The dialectic process between revolution and establishment in the Futurist theatre is therefore somewhat tricky, since they were unable to implement most of their revolutionary ideas within the conventional theatre of the time: the plays, which were performed on conventional stages, lost many of their innovations because the space and the technical facilities were not suited to their needs. Moreover, some of their ideas were never accepted by the conventional theatre, therefore they had to find an alternative venue – that of Performance Art, a new theatrical genre which later developed alongside the mainstream theatre and somewhat influenced it.
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Ruth Markus, “Picasso’s Guitar, 1912: The Transition from Analytical to Synthetic Cubism”, Assaph 2, Studies in Art History, Tel-Aviv University, 1996; (233-246).
Abstract
Picasso’s cardboard Guitar (1912) is the  most significant work in the transition from Analytical to Synthetic Cubism. It was an artistic experiment that turned out to be a solution to the dead-end reached by analytical cubism in 1912, which was a direct result of the way the Analytical Cubists represented the object. Assuming that the senses were insufficient to clarify the essence of the object, they employed comprehensive simultaneity, simultaneity of interior and exterior, and interchange between matter and space. As a result forms had become increasingly fragmented and transparent, contours had opened up and dissolved into space, and the objects disappeared in space.
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Ruth Markus, “The Contribution of Arnon Adar to The Israeli Theatre”, Assaph 6, Studies in the Theatre 6, Tel-Aviv University, 1990; (141-158).
Abstract
Arnon Adar was one of the most important stage designers in Israel. He objected to the term “stage painter” and claimed that the stage designer should be a total designer that deals with all the visual aspects of the theatre: set, costumes and lighting. Adar introduced many innovations to all these media. In addition to his works in the theatre, dance, opera and sound and light shows, he also designed and produced many performances and pageantries, and lighted many archeological and public sites and buildings in Israel and abroad. Together with Peter Fry he founded the Theatre Department in the Faculty of the Arts in Tel Aviv University.
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